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Balance Training Basics

Introduction

Traditionally, fitness professionals design programming and deploy measures to improve elemental fitness qualities, such as strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity, giving little if any thought to balance training.

At the dawn of the millennium, “functional training” was all the rage in the fitness industry. Everyone from mainstream pundits to esteemed strength and conditioning coaches extolled the seemingly interminable scroll of benefits functional training.

During that time, functional training struck a razor edge balance between contrarian and charlatanistic — it deviated from conventional resistance training which until that point, comprised almost exclusively of free weights and machines — and introduced a bevy of accessories that were purported to provide a safer alternative while improving balance and stability. Further, some disillusioned and somewhat naïve coaches advocated for performing sport-specific movements while using accessories consisting of elastic bands and tubing, wobble boards, physioballs, and hemispheric domes.

While their efforts were well-intentioned, they were largely misguided. Force production capabilities are greatly diminished when performing exercises on an unstable surface. And with elasticized resistance, it can be challenging to match strength curves associated with sporting movements — most movement in sport has an ascending strength curve, meaning when leverage is gained throughout the range of motion, less force is required. Elasticized resistance has a descending strength curve, meaning more force is required as leverage is gained due to change in tensile properties of the band or tubing (loss of slack and added tension). Sure, elasticized resistance can be added to accommodate the strength curve (i.e., help a powerlifter near lockout on a given lift), but that’s another entire article. (more…)

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3 Differences Between Group Fitness and Personal Training

Whether you want to shed off a few pounds or sculpt your dream physique, you’ll need to work up a sweat. In today’s world, people have numerous options for working out. You can purchase a set of workout videos, play them on your television while you work out from the comfort of your home. Alternatively, there are many fitness applications you can download on your phone to guide you through workouts. Most of these applications also have specific programs for you to follow.

However, there’s a reason most people choose to join a gym for their workouts. Gyms offer numerous advantages, such as an environment with minimal distractions to help you focus on exercising. They also boast dedicated trainers to help guide you through a workout. Moreover, many gyms and fitness studios will also hold weekly group sessions, encompassing a small group of people training together under the guidance of an instructor.

People often find themselves in a quandary over deciding whether joining a group class or training solo under a fitness trainer is a more suitable option for them. We’ll assess and pit both choices against each other.

A personal trainer ready to train a client

Group Fitness or Personal Training

Group fitness and personal training are both viable options for people looking to work out. However, there are also several differences between the two that you should know.

Group fitness sessions usually encompass a small group of people. Most fitness classes will comprise ten people or less. However, at the more commercial gyms, you’ll find fitness classes including more people.

On the other hand, personal training solely focuses on a sole individual. Personal training involves an instructor guiding you through every workout and assessing workouts and nutrition specifically for your body. In addition, your trainer will devise a workout regimen that helps you hit your targeted goals.

Here are some discernable differences between the two:


Certifications and Stackable Skills


Cost

Hiring a certified personal trainer to focus on you can be expensive, which is why most people opt for group classes. Group classes provide you with less individual attention. However, the group members divide the cost of working with a certified fitness trainer, making it a more affordable option.

Environment

The workout environment varies for both group training and personal training. If you’re a person who enjoys group dynamics and teamwork activities, a group training program might be more suitable for you.

Group fitness classes are always energetic. Moreover, working out with people can be an excellent way to work towards achieving individual goals collectively. On the other hand, working with a personal trainer entails that your trainer will push you to the limits during every workout session. If you feel you perform better when put through the wringer, personal training might be an ideal solution for your training needs.

Results

Getting results takes time. People don’t magically wake up with their ideal physiques overnight. It takes years of dedication and consistent hard work to sculpt your dream body.

Personal trainers craft workout regimens and nutrition programs based on your body and goal targets. Moreover, they’re aware of your strengths and weaknesses and focus on those aspects. Working with a personal trainer guarantees results.

Group fitness classes can help you get results too. However, it’s easy for you to get lost in the sea of faces, and the instructor won’t have the time to pay you individual attention, meaning you’ll be responsible for adhering to the workout plans and nutrition programs yourself.

A group doing Yoga


Certifications and Stackable Skills


Become an Accredited Fitness Trainer

If fitness fuels your drive and you have a passion for it, it might be a good idea to become a certified exercise trainer. Gaining certifications can allow you to make a career out of something you enjoy. In addition, statistics from the US Bureau of Labor show that the career outlook for fitness instructors is very optimistic, growing faster than the average.

If you’re looking to start your career as a fitness instructor, the World Instructor Training Schools is the place to go. We are accredited by the NCCA and offer fitness courses and training in over 39 states in the United States. In addition, we also have programs in Canada.

Whether you’re looking for a personal fitness trainer certification or a group exercise instructor certification, we’ve got you covered.

Contact us today to take your first step in the fitness industry.

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How to Know if You Should Become a Personal Trainer in 2021

: A personal trainer helping a client

If you have a deep-rooted passion for fitness, nothing’s stopping you from turning it into a livelihood. The saying goes that you never work a day in your life if you love what you do. People often harbor a misconception that they can’t turn their love for something into a career, but that’s not true. Fitness enthusiasts have numerous options to forge a career in fitness for themselves.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were over 373,000 jobs in the fitness sector. Moreover, statistics also show a promising job outlook for the fitness industry, with expected growth rates of 15 percent being far greater than the average.

Fitness enthusiasts have the opportunity to either seek these jobs or start their fitness empires as certified fitness trainers.

Signs You Should Become a Personal Trainer

Becoming a certified personal trainer has numerous benefits. It’s one of the most well-paying jobs in the industry. Moreover, you get to help people achieve their fitness goals daily. The career can be rewarding for people passionate about fitness. Here are some signs that you should consider becoming a personal trainer in 2021:

Workout Partners

Are you rarely alone when you work out? Moreover, do you constantly have friends and family asking you for help? There’s a chance that the people around you value your advice about nutrition and exercise, holding you as an authority on the subject.

In addition, if you’ve helped the people around you attain their fitness goals, it’s a start to your journey as a fitness expert. Cultivating a group of followers is a sign that you’re meant for a fitness career if you choose to do so.

Enthusiasm about Numbers and Progress

If numbers and progress excite you, you’re likely well-suited for a fitness career. Although numbers aren’t everything when it comes to fitness, they constitute an essential part of it. Most people seek personal training looking to either lose weight or gain weight. Regardless of their goals, weight loss or gain operates on the number of calories a person consumes. Fitness trainers devise nutrition plans and workout regimens to ensure that a person’s calorie intake exceeds if the person wants to gain weight. Similarly, if a person is looking to lose weight, fitness trainers will create plans to help them reduce calorie intake below their daily calorie requirement.

Likewise, stepping on the scale is a vital part of measuring progress. People are often weight-conscious, and they want to hit an ideal weight target. If measuring and tracking these numbers interest you, you should consider attaining a personal trainer certification.

A personal trainer assessing a client’s form

Professionally Pursuing a Career as a Fitness Trainer

If you’ve got the attributes to become a fitness trainer, you should consider its viability as a career option. If you’re looking to start your journey as a personal trainer, consider enrolling in the World Instructor Training Schools’ personal health trainer program. The World Instructor Training Schools, W.I.T.S., has numerous training programs that can help you become a certified exercise instructor.

Contact them today to learn more.

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Marketing Tips for Personal Trainers to Boost their Business

a fitness trainer marketing his business online

Whether you recently became a personal trainer or have been providing fitness training services for years, you should have a good grasp on the importance of marketing.

If you fail to market your services, facility, or even yourself as a trainer, you’ll struggle to reach more people and increase your audience base. You’ll also fail to become one of the top personal fitness trainers in your city, which is easily the topmost goal among trainers.

In this blog, we’ll walk you through three actionable marketing tips for personal trainers who are interested in growing their business. Continue reading.

1. Make the Most of SEO

When it comes to digital marketing, SEO (search engine optimization) should be your biggest focus. By creating a winning SEO strategy that comprises on-page, off-page, local, and technical elements, you can reach, engage, convert, and retain more clients.

As you rank higher on Google SERPs (search engine result pages), you’ll generate more traffic. As more and more people approach you and turn into long-term clients, your business will steadily grow.

We also recommend equipping your website with high-quality content on fitness, exercise, health, sports-related topics. As you optimize your content, you’ll reach more people and increase your conversion rate.


View the Webinar Marketing for Personal Trainers


2. Leverage the Power of Social Media

the power of social media

In the 2020s, you cannot deny the power of social media. If you want your services to get seen by more people, leverage the top social media apps, i.e., Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. If you’re willing to go the extra mile, we also recommend making the most of YouTube, Snapchat, Pinterest, and TikTok. The latter is especially popular among the younger audience that’s actively seeking personal trainers.

3. Highlight Your Certification

Today, a large majority of clients are looking for certified personal trainers. If you’re not certified, you’ll fail to get as many clients. In fact, non-certified personal trainers also lose clients to certified personal trainers in the long run. We recommend applying for certification and highlighting this feature every chance you get.

Mention that you’re a certified fitness trainer on your website, in your social media bio, on review sites, and other professional networking pages. Your certification should be visible to your clients, potential clients, and industry professionals who may partner with you down the road.

If you’re interested in becoming a certified personal trainer, we can help. Explore our personal fitness trainer certification courses to get started. Our team works assiduously to help you start a fulfilling career and transform many lives along the way. Whether you’re seeking group exercise instructor certification or fitness instructor certification, we’ll help you actualize your goals through theory and hands on in-person practical skill labs. Our internship partnerships with employers will walk you into jobs.


View the Webinar Marketing for Personal Trainers


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What Does the COVID-19 Delta Variant Mean for Fitness Professionals and Facility Operators?

By Joseph Giandonato, MBA, MS, CSCS
Faculty Member
World Instructor Training Schools

The murmuring of cases of the COVID-19 Delta variant has sounded the alarms of multiple public health agencies throughout the US in recent days. As of Tuesday, July 20th, the Delta variant represents 83% of new COVID-19 cases — which since the middle of July has averaged 32,837 new cases per day nationwide. Additionally, hospitalizations in that same span are up 35% from the week prior according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The Delta variant’s ascension comes at a time as many of us are finally settling back to the settings in which were most comfortable working with our clients, athletes, and students.

Let’s first dispel some falsehoods about the Delta variant and provide fitness professionals and facility operators suggestions on how to remain open in light of its recent proliferation.

1. The Delta variant is more dangerous than COVID-19. FALSE.

Variants are mutations of a virus and festooned nomenclature, in this case Greek alphabet characters to differentiate them from the original virus (COVID-19 Alpha) and other forms. A hallmark of the Delta variant are pronounced spike proteins which make it easier to penetrate cells and gain entry into angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which are found within the cells of the skin, smooth muscles, bronchial tract, and sebaceous and eccrine glands. Delta variant is highly transmissible and potentially more contagious than COVID-19 but no more dangerous.

(more…)

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What is the W.I.T.S Difference?

By Joseph Giandonato, MBA, MS, CSCS
Faculty Member
World Instructor Training Schools

Whether you are a newly minted college graduate or returning to the classroom following a layoff, W.I.T.S. will help you pave a path to successfully entering the fitness industry through an assortment of evidence-based pedagogical measures.

  1. Unlike most fitness organizations, W.I.T.S. provides (30) contact hours of live instruction facilitated by an experienced fitness professional. Lectures are delivered in-person or virtually with practical sessions hosted in actual fitness settings, enabling students to learn and become confident with core tenets of personal training including interviewing, assessing, testing, training, and coaching clients.
  2. Faculty members are well versed in educational theory and engender self-directed learning environments within the classroom and in the gym — students are given greater autonomy complemented with subtle guidance from the instructor, which is conducive to active learning. This model contrasts traditional teacher-directed models in which the teacher dictates the exchange of knowledge and cadence at which it is delivered. For aspirant and nascent fitness professionals, knowing how and why and being able interpret complex scientific information and exercise training methodologies in non-technical language for clients is critical and these skills are gained through our self-directed learning environment.
  3. Research has shown that active learning is far more effective than passive learning — or merely being the recipient of information — in acquiring knowledge. Many of our faculty members employ the “E.D.I.P.” model to ensure competency of a given skill or subject area is established.

Browse the W.I.T.S Certifications and Stackable Skills


  1. Educate: Students are provided a background or historical overview or rationale.
  2. Demonstrate: Students are shown a process or procedures employing practical or real-world examples.
  3. Imitate: Students are asked to imitate the skill or iterate the knowledge shared with them.
  4. Practice: Students are encouraged to practice or apply said skills or knowledge until competency is achieved.
  5. Professional and life experience is leveraged to the students’ benefit. The adage of “life is the best teacher” aptly fits here. We all bring diverse and unique professional and personal experiences to the W.I.T.S. Personal Training Certification Course. A culmination of those experiences shaped you into the person you are today, likely congealed into the watershed moment needed for you to transition into or take a new step within the fitness industry and will undoubtedly influence your approach and interest areas, as you grow as a fitness professional.
  6. NCCA is the industry accepted standard but W.I.T.S. took it a step further to be the only fitness certification to have the practical skills exam accredited as well. None of the other fitness industry certifications has this credential in this area. Building out the infrastructure enables the W.I.T.S graduates and their employers to know that they can perform!
  7. Upon successful completion of the course, apply those credits towards a degree. The American Council of Education recognizes W.I.T.S. as an education provider. Students who complete the course and pass the certifying examinations are eligible to be granted (3) college credits than can be applied to an academic degree program.

Browse the W.I.T.S Certifications and Stackable Skills


Joe Giandonato

Joseph Giandonato, MBA, MS, CSCS has been a faculty member of the World Instructor Training Schools since 2010. Presently, Joe serves as an Employee Wellbeing Coordinator at the University of Virginia where he assists with the design, delivery, oversight, and evaluation of UVA’s comprehensive and award-winning employee wellness program, Hoos Well. Previously, Joe served as a Fitness and Recreation Specialist at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Manager of Health Promotion and Wellness at Drexel University, and Head Strength and Conditioning Coach and Fitness Director at Germantown Academy. Additionally, Joe maintains adjunct faculty appointments at Eastern University and Chestnut Hill College where he teaches exercise science electives. He is currently pursuing his doctorate in education and is studying the role of physical activity on mental health.

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4 Things Only a Personal Trainer Can Do for Their Clients

yoga workout

With the fitness industry grossing billions of dollars every year by helping people improve their lifestyle and physical health, it is only natural that certified personal trainers have been more in demand in recent years than ever before. This is also because it has been observed that a personal health trainer program is more likely to help people achieve their fitness goals as opposed to self-training.

Even though there are multiple reasons why a personal fitness trainer is essential on the journey of health but here are a few of the most critical ones that you, as someone passionate about fitness, must know:

1. Catering to Personal Requirements

Everybody’s abilities and requirements are different when it comes to fitness training. For someone looking to bounce back after a severe accident, the fitness plan would be different than someone who wants to shed a few pounds. This is where a personal trainer comes in. With their knowledge and expertise, they cater to individual needs and make custom programs according to the client’s requirements.

2. Providing Nutritional Guidance

If someone is already familiar with the basics of fitness training, they might find themselves wondering, ‘why should I hire a fitness trainer?’. The fact is, every personal training certification involves an introduction to and a module on nutrition. This equips them with the knowledge they use to help their clients achieve fitness goals by incorporating the right nutrition into their diet.

3. Keeping a Track and Holding Accountable

Procrastination and a busy schedule make it hard for people to form healthy habits or a fitness routine. This is where a personal trainer plays their role. They hold their clients accountable for the missed schedules and routines and ensure that the client’s progress is being effectively tracked. For people who find it hard to break bad habits or beat laziness, a personal trainer is a huge help in setting practical short-term goals that are easier to achieve.

4. Motivation and Mental Well-Being

Physical health helps improve mental health and is a part of the recommended treatment for mental health challenges like depression. A good and well-trained personal trainer can help customize an exercise plan that positively impacts clients dealing with this situation. PTs are also a source of motivation for clients as they help them keep track of their lives and encourage them through tougher days.

These 4 points are the reason why you should hire a personal trainer rather than self-training if you want to achieve your fitness goals?

Contact the experts today and reach your goals faster than you think you can!

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What All Personal Trainers Should Know About Weight Loss

weight loss

If you are a certified personal trainer from a reputable training school, you might be aware of the tips and tricks involved in helping people drop down a few extra stones to get back to a healthier lifestyle. You must also be aware of the struggles that obese people face daily and the suffering that they have to face at the hands of society’s cruelty.

But if you are leading a personal health trainer program to make a difference in someone’s life, we advise you to go through the following article and keep these in mind during work hours.

1. Obese People Are Not Lazy

Contrary to how obese people are usually portrayed, obesity is not the result of laziness in most cases. In fact, it is a chronic condition that needs to be dealt with sensitivity and patience. Having a biased perception against people suffering from obesity can demotivate them and end up causing more harm than any good.

2. Weight Loss Might Be Harmful

Obese people who try to follow a very rigorous weight loss routine can end up causing very serious complications to their health. That is why we insist on getting help from someone who has personal fitness trainer certification and knows exactly what to add and subtract from a client’s lifestyle to help them shed weight without compromising on immunity.

3. Exercise Is Useful, but Upgrades to the Menu Are Necessary as Well

You could be making your client go through the best exercise routine, but you won’t achieve the desired results until you make some upgrades to their kitchen routine. And to make them as effective as you can, you will have to ensure that these are fun upgrades and not things that the client dreads or runs away from instead of embracing happily.

Obesity might have become a rising problem in today’s world, but with enough patience, coaching, and a little understanding, you can not only help someone build their confidence but also improve their lives by making them become a healthier, more active version of themselves.

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4 Reasons to Take the Leap and Become a Personal Trainer

gym workout in progress

Deciding on a career path that you have a passion for can be challenging for most people. You have to consider the level of interest you have, the long-term benefits of the profession, and whether or not you can pursue the career for a long time. For example, suppose you are one of the people who are passionate about their body’s fitness and try to lead a healthy lifestyle. In that case, you can change your passion into a highly rewarding career by becoming a personal trainer. But is it the career change that you need?

To help you decide, we have compiled the top 4 reasons why you should become a personal trainer, essentially making your gym your workplace.

1. Opportunities and Monetary Benefits

The continuous increase in the number of people facing obesity has given the weight loss industry a boom in recent years. Fueled by the need to live a healthier lifestyle, people seek the help of fitness trainers to help them stay active and lose weight. With this growth in the industry come career opportunities and an ever-increasing salary for the professionals in the field. And well, who doesn’t love some extra bucks, right?

2. Independence

Working as a personal trainer can give you the satisfaction of working on your own. This will not only help you become your own boss by setting a flexible schedule and timings, but it will also give you a sense of job security that is often missing when one works for somebody else. So you can pursue your passion for fitness and the ambition to build your own brand simultaneously by working as a PT.

3. Job Satisfaction

Working as a certified fitness trainer will allow you to make a difference in people’s lives and witness it firsthand. By working with people to help them improve their lives and achieve their goals, you will get a sense of job satisfaction that is missing when one works long hours sitting behind a desk at work.

4. Engaging Career

Being a personal trainer will allow you to have a career that doesn’t require you to sit long, strenuous hours behind a work desk, doing something that you are not even passionate about. Instead, it will prove to be an engaging career with an active and positive work environment, whether it is in a gym or outside in fresh air. Hence, along with the people you are helping, you will also be leading a healthier lifestyle.

With the freedom to choose when, where, and how you work, get a personal trainer certification from us today and let your passion guide you to success.

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Ultra-High Repetition (UHR) Training: Insights, Perspectives, and Programming Considerations

by Joe Giandonato, MBA, MS, CSCS
Faculty Member, World Instructor Training Schools

The events of 2020 have plunged many of us into the caverns of our deepest possible introspections — the way we evaluate our lives, purpose, and appreciate each waking moment is magnified. Amid the differences the mass media conveniently highlights to divide us and through our daily struggles in this volatile world, there is one common denominator among us — something that has served as our cornerstone — training.

The way we as coaches, athletes, fitness professionals, and enthusiasts view training has indelibly changed. One thing this year has taught our collective brethren is to be more resourceful and resilient than ever. Brick and mortar business models are now shifting to virtual mediums. Programming is now more flexible, not in the literal sense, but in the practical one, given the pre-emptive and seemingly pulsatile closures of gyms and fitness facilities, otherwise deemed as “non-essential” businesses.

Nowadays, much of my work revolves around instituting, delivering, and evaluating wellness initiatives within higher education, though I continue to support a small contingent of clients, including a handful of professional basketball players. Though an infinitesimally small sample of the population we serve, the adverse impact on their personal and professional lives is representative of those wanting to doggedly continue the pursuit of their training goals.

With limited to no access to facilities and most having a sparse collection of equipment at their disposal, their predicament forced us to establish a new normalcy through sustainable programming.

Enter ultra-high repetition (UHR) training…

At first glance, employing repetition ranges beyond (20) may have limited utility. And in traditional settings, performing exclusively higher repetitions may not favorably elicit adaptations in maximal or limit strength, however, UHR does warrant consideration in several circumstances beyond those rehabilitating from injury.

It has been well established that higher repetitions per set will tap into the oxidatively mediated Type I muscle fibers that are responsible for stability and motor control, thus providing an adequate stimulus requisite for activation.

However, those beginning an exercise program or returning from a long layoff, perhaps prompted by facility closures and limited access to equipment, could benefit from UHR training.


Add dumbbell training to your programming knowledge base


An experimental design consisting of circuit training sessions performed 3x weekly conducted over a period of (12) weeks involving repetitions as high as (36) per set, yielded considerable improvements in strength and body compositions among the training group [4]. Among untrained individuals, little differences in strength were realized upon completing 3x weekly sessions for (7) weeks for groups performing 3-5 repetitions, 13-15 repetitions, and 23-25 repetitions [9]. An earlier study involving untrained subjects demonstrated increased time to fatigue, maximal aerobic power, and significant improvements in muscular endurance upon completion of performing an (8) week battery involving a repetition range of 20-28 repetitions for two sets interpolated by one minute of rest [1]. Additionally, dual energy X-ray scans following 27 weeks of low-load, high-repetition resistance training revealed significant improvements in pelvic bone mineral density and accretions within the appendicular skeleton and lumbar spine [5].

Acutely, energy expenditure was found to be comparable between time matched sessions involving lower loads with higher repetitions and higher loads for lower repetitions [6]. Lesser loads representing 30% of 1RM, when brought to momentary muscular fatigue, were shown to educe acute myofibrillar protein synthesis rates comparable to 90% of 1RM among untrained, but active young men, when paired with immediate post-session protein enriched recovery supplement [3]. Performing repetitions to failure at 30% 1RM within an (8) week program evoked increases in physiological cross-sectional area of the lower thigh, or quadriceps (7.8%) similar to high load, repetitions to failure (8.1%) and high load, repetitions not taken to failure (7.7%) [2]. Comparable increases in muscle thickness were observed among groups of women engaging in either 30% 1RM or 80% 1RM over a period of six weeks [8]. And though Schoenfeld and colleagues (2015) illustrated improved strength among highly trained subjects performing a protocol of higher loads and moderate repetitions (8-12 repetitions), comparable increases in thickness of the elbow flexors and extensors and knee extensors were attained with lower loads and higher repetitions (25-35 repetitions) absent any deliberate nutritional modifications over (8) weeks [7]. As observed in multiple prior studies, muscular endurance significantly improved.

It can be speculated that the training intensity achieved in said protocols was sufficient to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an enzymatic protein that stewards muscle protein synthesis, which is a key determinant of hypertrophy.

Broadly speaking, training with higher repetition ranges builds and maintains the foundational work capacity required for more intense training as denominated by external load, volume, tonnage (load x volume), or density and permit for more frequent training, which in turn, permit enhanced muscle protein synthesis. Frequent training, absent circa maximal loads and attendant mechanical tension, is also more conducive to inter-session recovery since muscle soreness and taxation of the central nervous system are of little concern.

Below are some programming considerations:

  1. For injured persons, beginners, and those lacking relative strength, or proficiency with their bodyweight, and or limited proprioception, light dumbbells, household objects and canned goods with even weight distribution are recommended.
  2. If possible, bodyweight exercises should be performed as they enable a myriad of progression schemes: repetitions and sets (volume) and density and can also be performed intermittently. Bodyweight exercises, almost exclusively, are credited for sculpting Herculean physiques, including that of former Heisman trophy winner, Herschel Walker, who performed hundreds of push-ups and sit-ups daily.
  3. Bands also permit the execution of high repetitions sets while mitigating post-session and day after soreness. Bands accommodate the strength curve on exercises. Overload is experienced closer to the end of the exercise’s respective range of motion or “lock-out”.
  4. High intensity plyometric exercises, such as bounding, broad and vertical and other multi-directional jumps, and those intended to develop muscular power should not be performed in high repetition sets.
  5. Olympic lifts should not be performed in high repetition sets as technical execution and motor learning tasks take precedence over muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness.
  6. Though the loads may seem light from the outset, its prudent to adhere to progressive overload and not drastically increase volume or intensity arbitrarily and/or in subsequent training sessions. Also, limit training to failure to one set per training session and build up to one set per exercise performed, ideally the last set of said exercise.

Add dumbbell training to your programming knowledge base


References

  1. Campos, G.E., Luecke, T.J., Wendeln, H.K., Toma, K., Hagerman, F.C., Murray, T.F., Ragg, K.E., Ratamess, N.A., Kraemer, W.J., & Staron, R.S. (2002). Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 50-60.
  2. Lasevicius, T., Schoenfeld, B.J., Silva-Batista, C., de Souza Barros, T., Aihara, A.Y., Brendon, H., Longo, A.R., Tricoli, V., de Almeida Peres, B., & Teixeira, E.L. (2019). Muscular failure promotes greater muscle hypertrophy in low-load but not in high-load resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Mitchell, C.J., Churchward-Venne, T.A., West, D.W.D., Burd, N.A., Breen, L., Baker, S.K., & Phillips, S.M. (2012). Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 113 (1), 71-77.
  4. O’Connor, T.E. & Lamb, K.L. (2003). The effects of Bodymax high-repetition resistance training on measures of body composition and muscular strength in active adult women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17 (3), 614-620.
  5. Petersen, B.A., Hastings, B., & Gotschall, J.S. (2015). Low load, high repetition resistance training program increases bone mineral density in untrained adults. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57 (1-2), 70-76.
  6. Rustaden, A.M., Gjestvang, C., Bǿ, K., Hagen Haakstad, L.A., & Paulsen, G. (2020). Similar energy expenditure during BodyPump and heavy load resistance exercise in overweight women. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, 570
  7. Schoenfeld, B.J., Peterson, M.D., Ogborn, D., Contreras, B., & Sonmez, G.T. (2015). Effects of low- versus high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (10), 2954-2963.
  8. Stefanaki, D.G.A., Dzulkarnain, A., & Gray, S.R. (2019). Comparing the effects of low and high load resistance exercise to failure on adaptive responses to resistance exercise in young women. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37 (12), 1375-1380.
  9. Weiss, L.W., Coney, H.D., & Clark, F.C. (1999). Differential functional adaptations to short-term low-, moderate-, and high-repetition weight training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13 (3), 236-241.